Pronunciation Guide


Transliteration Pronunciation Transliteration Pronunciation
a as in far ṝ as in ṛ but longer
ā as in farther ē as in paint
i as in pin ai as in kite
ī as in pique o as in pole
u as in pull au as in cow
ū as in rule aṃ as in sum अं
ṛ as in prefer aḥ is a voiceless h अः

Seldom used vowel –

ḹ – ॡ as in bottle


Transliteration k as in sky kh as in cake g as in god gh aspirated g ṅ as in going
Transliteration ch as in chain but unaspirated chh as in chain j as in jump jh aspirated j ñ as in cologne
Transliteration ṭ as in total ṭh retroflexed t ḍ retroflexed different ḍh aspirated d ṇ retroflexed n in earn
Transliteration t as in ṭ but dental th as in ṭh but dental d as in different but dental dh as in ḍh but dental n as in nose but dental
Transliteration p as in pet but unaspirated ph as in pet b as in book bh aspirated b m as in mother
Transliteration y as in yacht r as in roof l as in laugh v as in vixenixen  sh as in ship
Pronunciation श / ष
Transliteration s as in sit h as in hat ḻ retroflexed l

Aspirated – pronounced with an accompanying forceful expulsion of air

Retroflex – pronounced with the tongue fully curled back

Dental – pronounced with the tongue tip touching the top teeth

Note : श / ष are both transliterated as ‘sh’. Even though there are differences in how each is pronounced, the differences are minor enough that for sake of simplicity we have decided to transliterate both as sh.

Sources : OurSanskrit | LearnSanskrit

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